The ability to quickly change generations of technology and introduce innovations determines the technological leadership of the country and its place in the world. Technologies and new innovative products are equally used in all countries of the modern world, but the emergence and implementation of innovative products is extremely uneven. In all industries there is a sharp struggle for leadership in global technological competition. Countries whose positions seemed unshakable yesterday begin to give way in the technological race to new countries from new regions and are forced to leave the market.
In Russia, over 23 years (from 1992 to 2015), an economy was created that became an organic part of the world economy, mainly due to the development of natural resources. Almost 30% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of Russia is the result of the sale of gas, oil, metals, timber and other raw materials or products of the first processing stage on the world market. Another 38% of Russia’s GDP comes from the infrastructure sector. In the process of embedding the Russian economy into the global division of labor, the most liquid sectors of the national economy survived (mainly in the raw materials industries). Domestic industries that could be attributed to the high-tech market were curtailing at that time.
As a result, over the past 23 years, the Russian economy has experienced massive deindustrialization. Leadership in many industries has been lost. The number of export positions of the country has decreased since 1991 by more than 15 times. There was a total simplification of the structure of domestic industry.
At present, Russia depends not only on imports of modern technologies and sophisticated products (i.e. products on the high-tech market), but also on imports of consumer goods. Russia’s share in the high-tech market has fallen to a symbolic 0.3% and remains only at the expense of products of the military-industrial complex, nuclear and space sectors of the economy.
The key task for Russia – essentially economic, but also political in importance – is the transition to an innovative economy, which makes it possible to protect itself from fluctuations in commodity prices. Only a change in the type of economic growth will allow Russia to stand on a par with the world leaders in production and significantly improve its economic status. Such an important and necessary transition for the country to an innovative path of development is possible only if the industries that determine scientific and technological progress are effectively and dynamically developed.
The experience of economically developed countries shows that the priority sectors are those belonging to the high-tech sector, which, having advanced technologies, create conditions for the progressive development of other industries.
Recently, among the terms associated with information and communication technologies, the word “techno park” has been prominently highlighted, this is due, in particular, to the fact that plans for the accelerated growth of the high-tech sector of the economy are associated with techno parks. The purpose of creating a techno park is to concentrate specialists of a general profile of activity on a single territory. Scientists can conduct research in the techno park, teach at educational institutions and participate in the process of implementing the results of their research.
A more general definition can be defined as “Technopark – a complex of innovative infrastructure facilities, including engineering and technological infrastructure facilities, a technological incubator, infrastructure for industrial design and prototyping, engineering services, organization of production and access to supply systems for key consumers, providing a full cycle of accommodation services and development of new innovative companies”.
The model for the creation and development of Silicon Valley in the United States became the prototype of modern technology parks. The transformation of certain clusters of the IT industry into Silicon Valley occurred naturally in the 70s of the 20th century, as well as the emergence of the industry itself.
The emergence of Silicon Valley is due to the presence in one place of the following factors: scientific and educational centers (patents, research, universities, labor market, etc.), infrastructure (rent, land, required space, electricity, management companies, etc.) , financial and legislative institutions (leasing, venture capital, legal framework, etc.). It is Silicon Valley that can be considered a techno park that arose “naturally” – without the active participation of the state.
The Madam Technopark in Israel was one of the first research centers to emerge outside of the United States, based on the Silicon Valley model. The first stage of the formation of the techno park was significantly shortened due to municipal investments. Mata was founded in the 70s of the 20th century by the Haifa Economic Corporation. The founders were able to very successfully use the availability of the necessary development factors – the presence of strong technological schools (universities), the labor market, financial and legislative institutions and create infrastructural conditions for further development.