At the end of 2002, 3.2 million people were engaged in research work throughout the country, including 28 billion yuan in scientific and technical activities, including 128.8 billion yuan for research and development, while in 1949 this figure was only 56 million yuan. Since 1978, the Chinese government has begun to greatly increase investment in science and technology.
this year the budgetary allocation for the development of science and technology amounted to 5.29 billion yuan, in 1995 – 30.23 billion yuan, and in 2002 already reached 81 RMB 6 billion. Chinese enterprises also increased their scientific and technological investment. In 1991, enterprises invested in science totaled 12.2 billion yuan, and in 2000 increased sharply to 167.7 billion yuan, 12 times more than in 1991.
In 1999, China successfully launched 4 satellites into space. The successful launch of the China-designed and manufactured spacecraft Shenzhou-5 and Shenzhou-6 means that China has taken an important step forward in the development of manned space flight.
Over the 20 years of reforms and opening up, the Government of the PRC has established the main course and strategic goals for the development of science and technology. This was of great far-reaching significance for our country.
Main course: adhering to the idea (concept) of science and technology as the primary productive force, in economic construction it is necessary to rely on science and technology, work in the field of science and technology must be subordinated to economic construction, to conquer the heights of science and technology with all our might.
― To properly strengthen fundamental research, increase the country’s scientific and technical might, its scientific and technological level, and increase the technological reserve;
― To comprehensively increase the coefficient of the quantitative and qualitative contribution of science and technology to socio-economic development, especially to identify its leading role in ensuring the scientific and technological progress of agriculture, in the field of new technologies and their industrialization, as well as in the reconstruction and raising the level of traditional industries;
― To create a new system of science and technology, adequate to the system of the socialist market economy and the laws of scientific and technical self-development, to increase the viability of research institutions and the activity of scientific and technical workers.
Today, the implementation of the strategy of “raising the country based on science and education” is the biggest task of the Chinese government. In accordance with the fundamental course and strategic goals of the development of science and technology in China, the state carried out general planning of work in the scientific and technical sphere.
forming the following three-level development model: “Innovative scientific research serving the main bridgehead ― economic construction and social development, development of high technologies and creating an industry of high and new technologies, as well as strengthening fundamental research. ” At the same time, the corresponding state plans and programs for the development of science and technology were developed:
In the first such plan, drawn up in 1982, the main task was to take by storm the key technologies and technologies of general use, which played the role of supporting pillars in social economic development and influencing the general situation in this area. This plan was funded primarily by government funds with concurrent contributions from industries and provinces.
The program is financed mainly through bank loans and the accumulation of public funds with additional financial assistance from the state.
This plan officially began to operate in 1990, its main purpose is to create a favorable environment and conditions worldwide for the organized and systematic implementation of advanced, ready-to-use scientific and technological achievements on the main foothold in economic construction in order to facilitate the close connection of science and technology with the economy. Funding sources for this plan are mainly loans, capital investments, own funds of enterprises, accumulation of public funds, funds from industries or provinces, and the state allocates only small auxiliary funds for individual projects.
This program covers the period 1996-2010. Its purpose is to improve the quality of life and natural qualities of the people, improve the living environment and human development, regulate human relations with nature, promote scientific and technological progress in the social sphere and related industries.
The main spheres covered by the program are: population, medical care and sanitation, health, rational use of natural resources and their protection, protection and improvement of the ecological environment; preventive measures against natural disasters; dwellings and urban and rural construction.
In 1998, the state initiated experimental work on the “project for the creation of new knowledge”, for which it was planned to allocate 4.8 billion yuan over 3 years in order to create a state system and a functional mechanism of intellectual innovation and create a number of innovative centers in order to lay the foundation for a large-scale increase in the techno-innovative potential of our country.
In 1998, the state also allocated 1.0 billion yuan to establish the Fund for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Science and Technology, designed to understand the mechanisms of risky investments, to support the transformation of scientific and technological advances into real productive force, and to provide assistance to scientific and technical workers. in the creation of scientific and technical enterprises by them. This will ensure the rapid development of medium and small enterprises of high technology and competitiveness, which will become a new point of growth for the country’s economy.
Special mention should be made of the All-China Meeting on Technological Innovation held in Beijing last August. The meeting was attended and made important speeches by President of the People’s Republic of China Jiang Zemin and Premier of the State Council Zhu Romaji.” The meeting focused on the continuation of deepening the reform of the system of science and technology, the adoption of such effective measures as the policy of fiscal support, policy of monetary support to achieve a super-stage development of social productive forces, so that we can reach the forefront of the world in terms of total state power.
The beginning of its implementation is March (3rd month) 1986, the main task is to play the vanguard role and the role of a locomotive in the development of high technologies, in order to create conditions for the formation of a high-tech industry with certain advantages in the period after 2000, and also to prepare the groundwork for ensuring stable sustainable development of the country’s economy at a higher level.